In this trial (Valarini, Diaz Alvarez, Gasco, Guerrero, & Tokeshi, 2003) conducted in Madrid, Spain, the Properties of a clay loam soil enriched with organic matter and microorganisms were evaluated under controlled temperature and moisture conditions, over a period of three months. The following treatments were carried out: soil (control); soil + 50 t ha-1 of animal manure (E50); soil + 50 t ha-1 of animal manure + 30 L ha-1 of effective microorganisms (E50EM); soil + 30 t ha-1 of the combination of various green crop residues and weeds (RC30) and soil + 30 t ha-1 of the combination of various green crop residues and weeds + 30 L ha-1 of effective microorganisms (RC30EM). Soil samples were taken before and after incubation and their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters analysed.

A Significant increase was observed in the production of exopolysaccharides and basic phosphatase and esterase enzyme activities in the treatments E50EM and RC30EM, in correlation with the humification of organic matter, water retention at field capacity, and the cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of the same treatments. The conclusion was drawn that the incorporation of a mixture of effective microorganisms (EM) intensified the biological soil activity and improved physical and chemical soil properties, contributing to a quick humification of fresh organic matter. These findings were illustrated by the microbiological activities of exopolysaccharides and by alkaline phosphatase and esterase enzymes, which can be used as early and integrated soil health indicators.

Reference: Valarini, P. J., Diaz Alvarez, M. C., Gasco, J. M., Guerrero, F., & Tokeshi, H. (2003). Assessment of soil properties by organic matter and EM-microorganism incorporation. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo.