Important COVID-19 update - We remain available to support the national food chain therefore services will continue for clients and distributors whose operations are considered to be ‘essential services’ only. All retail/home and garden orders over the next four weeks will be processed but not shipped until there is a reduction in the current alert level 4. For any questions please contact us

Spinach, Cabbage and Radish

This series of published greenhouse trials (Ryang, Lim, & Kim, 1995) was conducted by the Institute of Agribiology, Academy of Agricultural Services in Pyongyang, Korea.

The trial was designed to look at the effects on yield and quality of some vegetable crops. The results found that the yields of spinach grown in glasshouses were increased by 10.4 – 24.8 % with the addition of EM. And the yields of Chinese cabbage and radish in field in autumn were increased to 23.5 - 57.9 % 38.8 - 47.2 %, respectively. Improvement of taste and nutrient value by increasing of vitamins, sugar, protein and amino acid was found with Elf treatment in vegetable crops.








Ryang, H. G., Lim, Y. D., & Kim, S. G. (1995). Yield and Quality of Vegetables as affected by EM. Pyongyang: Institute of Agrobiology, Pyongyang DPRK.